Favorite Fragrant Early Spring Flowering Shrubs

Favorite Fragrant Early Spring Flowering Shrubs Featured Image

Some shrubs produce flowers that do more than draw the eye; they also delight us with their delicious scent. The most obvious examples are hybrid tea roses and common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), which owe a good deal of their renown to the legendary bouquet of their blooms. Yet many other shrubs offer equally alluring fragrance, often at seasons when lilac and rose are at a lull.  Here’s a seasonal summary of a few of the best.

Asian Witch Hazels

The orange-red Hamamelis x intermedia 'Jelena'
The orange-red Hamamelis x intermedia ‘Jelena’ is a reliable late-winter bloomer.

Asian witch hazels (Hamamelis x intermedia and H. mollis) – The ribbon-like yellow, orange, or red petals of these large shrubs unfurl on mild days in late winter (this year, they started blooming in mid-January here in balmy Rhode Island). Plant Asian witch hazels to the south of paths, doorways, and other winter viewpoints, where their gossamer petals will glow against the slanting rays of the winter sun, and where mild southern breezes will waft the flowers’ lemony scent to passersby. Witch hazels offer a bright encore in fall, their leaves assuming sunset tones that distantly echo the hues of their winter flowers. Hardy from USDA Zones 5b to 9, they succeed in full to partial sun and in just about any soil that’s not soggy or parched.

Winter Honeysuckle

Winter honeysuckle blooms
Winter honeysuckle blooms are delicate, white, and highly fragrant.

Winter honeysuckle (Lonicera fragrantissima) – A welcome sight and scent in the late winter garden, this East Asian native perfumes the air with small, white, funneled blooms that open on mild days from January to early April. A deciduous, 6-foot shrub in the colder sectors of its zone 5 to 9 hardiness range, it behaves – or rather misbehaves – as a moderately to highly invasive 8- to 12-foot evergreen in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast. It’s thus best reserved for northern U.S. gardens. Its hybrid Lonicera × purpusii (including ‘Winter Beauty’) does much the same thing. All forms of winter honeysuckle favor full to partial sun and well-drained, average to fertile soil.

February Daphne

February Daphne blooms
The flowers of February daphne bloom before the branches leaf out.

February daphne (Daphne mezereum) – Intensely fragrant mauve-pink flowers crowd the naked, erect branches of this sparse, 3- to 4-foot shrub in late winter and early spring – a bit later than its common name would suggest. White-flowered cultivars are also available. Poisonous red fruits follow the flowers, and sometimes give rise to volunteer seedlings. A long-time garden favorite in its native Eurasia as well as in the U.S. and Canada (where it’s hardy from zones 4 to 7), it does best with plenty of elbow room, humusy well-drained soil, and full to partial sun. Give it a late-spring top-dressing of Fafard® Premium Topsoil to keep its roots cool, healthy, and happy.

Spring-Flowering Viburnums

The classic Korean spice viburnum
The classic Korean spice viburnum has clusters of powerfully sweet-scented spring flowers.

Korean spice viburnum (Viburnum carlesii) – The searching clove-like fragrance of Korean spice viburnum’s tubular, pinkish-white blooms is a welcome and warming presence in the mid-spring garden. The domed flower clusters typically open around the first of May in USDA Zones 5 and 6. Korean spice’s hybrid Judd viburnum (Viburnum x juddii) offers similar flowers and grayer, less aphid-prone leaves, in a similar, 6- to 8-foot package. The flowers of fragrant snowball (Viburnum x carlcephalum), another carlesii hybrid, are waxier and of heavier substance, and occur in larger, denser, almost spherical clusters. For tighter spaces there’s Viburnum carlesii ‘Compactum’, which matures at about 3 feet. Most forms and hybrids of Korean spice viburnum prosper in full sun from zones 5 to 8, and turn smoky burgundy tones in fall. Fragrant snowball is slightly less hardy, to zone 6.

Korean Abelia

Korean abelia
Korean abelia can be purchased at specialty nurseries and blooms in mid to late spring.

Korean abelia (Abelia mosanensis, aka Zabelia tyaihyonii) — An unassuming shrub most of the year, Korean abelia grabs sensory center stage in mid-spring when it envelops its branches in funnel-shaped pink flowers. The swarms of beguilingly spicy blooms draw every butterfly (and human) within sniffing distance.  The flowers also attract hummingbirds, desipite the fact that these birds have little to no sense of smell. This 4- to 6-foot shrub makes a great choice for full sun and average to fertile soil in zones 5 to 9.

Caucasian Daphne

Caucasian Daphne
Caucasian daphne is an evergreen shrub and late-spring bloomer.

Caucasian daphne (Daphne x transatlantica) — Late spring is also when this little love begins its lengthy bloom season. Wafting a complex and seductive fragrance containing hints of clove and vanilla, the glistening white flowers flush first in May and June, repeating the performance multiple times throughout summer and early fall. No other shrub in the 3-foot range can surpass it for flower power and scent. The variegated cultivar ‘Summer Ice’ compliments the blooms with white-edged leaves. All forms of Caucasian daphne are ideally suited for planting near paths and patios and other areas where their flowers and scent can cast their spell. Full to part sun and humus-rich, well-drained soil is ideal, as is a niche protected from harsh winter wind and crushing snow loads. Plants are hardy from zone 5 to 8.


The pink-flowered Clethra alnifolia 'Ruby Spice' flowers
The pink-flowered Clethra alnifolia ‘Ruby Spice’ flowers in early to mid-summer.

Summersweet (Clethra alnifolia) joins the fragrance fest in early summer. Its candles of fuzzy white or pink flowers carry a distinctive (and irresistible) scent with root beer undertones. The finely toothed, insect- (and deer-) resistant leaves of this rock-hardy eastern North American native are a lustrous dark green, turning brilliant butter-yellow in fall. Compact cultivars of summersweet (such as ‘Hummingbird’ and ‘Sixteen Candles’) make splendid shrubby ground covers for sun or shade, suckering to eventually cover considerable territory. Full-size, 6- foot varieties such as pink-flowered ‘Ruby Spice’ are among the premier shrubs for the summer garden. All forms do best in moist, humus-rich soil in zones 4 to 8.

Swamp Azalea

Swamp azalea
Swamp azalea grows well in average to moist garden soils with a more acid pH.

Swamp azalea (Rhododendron viscosum) is another summer-blooming native shrub with a wonderful scent (which hints at cloves rather than root beer). It, too, loves moist soil, making it an obvious garden companion for summersweet. Also well worth planting within its zone 5 to 8 hardiness range are several swamp azalea hybrids such as pale-yellow-flowered ‘Lemon Drop’.


Glory-bower flowers
The late-summer flowers of glory-bower are attractive and emit a fine scent.

Glory-bower (Clerodendrom trichotomum) — For late-season fragrance there’s this large suckering shrub (which reaches arboreal stature in warmer parts of its zone 6 to 9 hardiness range). The starry pale pink flowers begin in August and continue for many weeks, eventually giving way to blue-black berries nested within showy maroon calyces. This rather rambunctious East Asian native is not for small spaces or for locations where it might invade nearby natural areas (especially in the southern portions of its zone 6 to 9 hardiness range). It tolerates some shade, but prefers full sun.

The Best Hardy Camellias for the Landscape

Best Hardy Camellias for the Landscape Featured Image
Camellias have been known to trigger acute plant envy in Northern U.S. gardeners.  If only those voluptuous blooms came on hardier shrubs that could withstand sub-zero temperatures.
As a matter of fact, in some cases they do.  Although most camellias trace their origins to mild subtropical and maritime areas of East Asia, a few hail from chillier regions.  These cold-hardy camellias have contributed their genes to the development of new varieties that are as happy in Newport, Rhode Island as they are in Newport News, Virginia.

Hardy Camellia Origins

Camellia in winter
The hardiest spring-blooming camellias can even take snow flurries.

Many of these winter-ready camellias owe their toughness to arguably the hardiest species in the genus, Camellia oleifera.  Widely cultivated in China for its seed oil, it occurs in the wild as far north as Shaanxi Province, where winter temperatures resemble those in south-coastal New England and the upper Mid-Atlantic.  In American gardens, it’s grown chiefly for its fragrant, white, 2- to 3-inch-flowers, borne in fall on large, shrubby plants furnished with oval, evergreen leaves that taper at the tips.  The handsome gray-brown bark makes an eye-catching winter feature.
Camellia oleifera proved its hardiness in a series of bitterly cold winters that clobbered the eastern U.S. in the late 1970s.  Of hundreds of decades-old camellias at the National Arboretum in Washington, D.C., only a dozen or so survived – including several selections and hybrids of this rugged species. Subsequently, horticulturists have used Camellia oleifera to produce a number of comely cultivars that flourish into USDA Zone 6 (0 to minus 10 degrees F minimum temperatures).  Most of them produce pink or white, 3-inch-wide, single to double flowers in early to mid-fall (the earlier the better, so as to escape damage from Arctic spells).

Camellia japonica
Recent introductions of Camellia japonica (shown) from Korea and northern Japan are very hardy. (Image by PumpkinSky)

Camellia oleifera and its progeny are not the only hardy camellias on the block, however.  Recent introductions of Camellia japonica from Korea and northern Japan are also blessed with USDA Zone 6 hardiness.  Handsome year-round, they typically form dense 6- to 12-foot shrubs with lustrous, leathery, evergreen leaves and early-spring flushes of rich-red, 2- to 3-inch-wide flowers accented with yellow stamens.
Thanks to these two species, gardeners in Zone 6 can now do the formerly unthinkable: enjoy a fall and spring garden display of showy camellias.

Fall-Blooming Hardy Camellias

'Snow Flurry’ camellias
The flowers of Camellia ‘Snow Flurry’ appear in mid to late autumn.

Camellia ‘Autumn Spirit’

Combining the showy flowers of the cold-tender Camellia sasanqua with the Zone 6 hardiness of Camellia oleifera, this highly prized hybrid bears zingy, double rose-pink flowers in early to mid-autumn, well before freezing weather threatens.  They’re lovely planted in combination with Colchicum ‘Waterlily’.  The dense, 8-foot plants have relatively small, dark green leaves.

Camellia ‘Snow Flurry’

Two of the hardiest white-flowered camellias (‘Plain Jane’ and ‘Frost Princess’) teamed up to produce this beautiful, tough-as-nails cultivar.  Frilly white pompons appear in early to mid-autumn on a fast-growing shrub that takes well to early spring pruning and winters reliably through Zone 6.  Combine it with Anemone japonica ‘Whirlwind’ and Ilex glabra ‘Ivory Queen’ for a fall symphony in white.

Camellia ‘Survivor’

Single white flowers open in mid-fall on vigorous 10- to 20-foot plants.  A hybrid of Camellia oleifera, it lives up to its name by consistently showing superior hardiness in cold-winter climates (to USDA Zone 6).

Camellia ‘Winter’s Star’

Named for the shape of its single, lavender-pink flowers, ‘Winter’s Star’ actually commences bloom in October, well before the onset of winter weather in Zone 6 (where it’s perfectly hardy).  It forms an open, conical, 10- to 12-foot shrub.

Spring-Blooming Hardy Camellias

Camelia japonica 'Bloomfield' in snow
The flowers of Camellia japonica ‘Bloomfield’ appear in late winter to early spring.

Camellia japonica ‘April Remembered’

No cold-climate camellia produces anything more luscious than the 5-inch-wide, semi-double, creamy-pink flowers of this remarkably hardy 1996 introduction from Camellia Forest Nursery.  It rapidly forms a vigorous, 6- to 10-foot shrub with large rich-green leaves.  If you garden in USDA Zone 6 but want bodacious Southern belle camellias, ‘April Remembered’ is the place to start.  And yes – it does bloom during the first warm days of April, or sometimes March.

Camellia japonica ‘Bloomfield’

Brilliant red flowers, lush foliage, and a large, dense, rounded habit make for one of best all-around camellias for Zone 6 gardens.  The single, 3-inch-wide blooms occur in flushes during mild spells in late winter and early spring.  The original plant – grown from Korean seed at Morris Arboretum in Philadelphia – is more than 12 feet tall and 6 feet wide.

Camellia japonica ‘Korean Fire’

Smoldering-red, six-petaled, 2-inch-wide flowers repeat from late winter through early spring, weather permitting.  Perhaps the hardiest camellia variety introduced to date, ‘Korean Fire’ is well worth trying in favorable microclimates into USDA Zone 5.  Plants grow to 10 feet tall and 6 feet wide.

Growing Camellias

Fafard Premium Natural & Organic Compost Blend packAll camellias grow best in acid, friable, humus-rich soil, with protection from north winds and strong sunlight. If you garden in sandy or heavy soil, give your camellia an extra-wide planting hole (at least 3 times wider than the root ball), and amend the backfill with Fafard Premium Natural & Organic Compost.  Spring planting and a yearly application of an inch or two of compost are also advisable, whatever the soil.

Small Native Shrubs with Big Fall Color

Small Native Shrubs with Big Fall Color Featured Image
A compact cranberry viburnum glows like embers in an autumn landscape.

Some of the most brilliant fall shrubs come in small packages and have the added benefit of being native. This sets them apart from the many non-native, ecological troublemakers sold in most garden centers, which are seasonally beautiful but noxiously invasive. Landscape favorites like dwarf Burning bush (Euonymus alatus) and Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), are among the worst weedy offenders.

But, with so many small, tidy, vibrant North American options, there’s no need to grow weeds. Our favorite “Small” native shrubs grow no more than 4-feet high, with a comparable spread. All fit well in small-space gardens, along low borders, or in large containers. Many are cultivated varieties selected for their size and beauty, and each is adaptable and easy care.

Small Native Shrubs for Fall

When planting with fall in mind, choose from these standout beauties that nurture the environment. Many also have winter attractive berries that feed songbirds and other wildlife in the cold months.

Dwarf Black Chokeberry

Low Scape Mound™ leaves
The fall leaves of Low Scape Mound™ turn shades of crimson and orange. (Photo care of Proven Winners®)

Proven Winner’s Low Scape Mound™ black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa Low Scape Mound™, 1-2 feet, full to partial sun, Zones 3-9, eastern North America) is a truly small shrub that starts the season with medium-green leaves and clusters of pinkish-white May flowers that attract bees. Clusters of purple-black berries feed birds in summer, and bright crimson and orange leaves light up the fall landscape. These shrubs are best planted along border edges or in large pots. They will also tolerate moist soil conditions.

Bush Honeysuckle

Honeysuckle flowers
The summer flowers of bush honeysuckle are followed by yellow and red fall foliage. (Image by Rob Routledge, Sault College)

Don’t underestimate bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera, 3 feet, full to partial sun, Zones 3-7, eastern North America). The yellow and/or orange-red summer flowers of this underplanted native shrub are a favorite of bumblebees, and it’s crisp green foliage turns from yellow to red in fall. It will withstand partial sun and dry, rocky soils, though its fall leaf color is prettiest when specimens are planted in full sun.

Dwarf Fothergilla

Dwarf fothergilla leaves
The leaves of dwarf fothergilla turn brilliant orange, red, and gold in fall.

There are many wonderful cultivated varieties of dwarf fothergilla (Fothergilla gardenii, 2-4 feet, full sun to partial shade, Zones 5-8, southeastern United States) available. One of the best is ‘Blue Mist’, which grows to 3 feet and bears ivory bottlebrush blooms in early spring followed by blue-green summer foliage. In fall, the leaves turn riotous shades of orange, gold, and red.

Dwarf Oakleaf Hydrangea

Oakleaf hydrangeas
All oakleaf hydrangeas turn pleasing shades of red and mahogany in fall.

Standard oakleaf hydrangeas (Hydrangea quercifolia, full to partial sun, Zones 5-9, southeastern United States) are very large shrubs but lots of superb dwarf varieties have been bred.  The 3- to 4-foot ‘Ruby Slippers’ bears lots of large, rosy flower panicles in late spring, and its green oak-shaped leaves turn, mahogany red in fall. Another colorful beauty is the gold-leaved ‘Little Honey’, which grows to 3-4 feet, bears white flower panicles in summer, and has deep red fall leaves.

Dwarf Virginia Sweetspire

Itea virginica Scentlandia® leaves
Itea virginica Scentlandia® turns shades of deep purple and glowing red with hints if orange and gold. (Image care of Proven Winners®)

Named for its drooping spires of fragrant, early summer flowers, Scentlandia® Virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica Scentlandia®, 2-3 feet, full sun to partial shade, Zones 5-9, southeastern United States) has the added bonus of spectacular fall foliage. A single plant may have a mix of purple, red, orange, and gold fall leaves at once. The soil-adaptable shrubs grow well in average to boggy ground.

Compact Fragrant Sumac

Fragrant sumac leaves
Fragrant sumac has colorful fall leaves of purple, red, orange and gold. (Image by Jessie Keith)

If you need a tough shrub with great fall looks, try compact fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica ‘Gro Low’, 2-3 feet, full to partial sun, Zones 3-9, mid-western and eastern North America). This low, spreading shrub grows well in rugged, dry roadside plantings as well as home landscapes, and its three-parted leaves turn hot hues in fall.

Dwarf Witherod Viburnum

Lil' Ditty flowers and red fall foliage (inset)
Lil’ Ditty witherod viburnum looks great in spring and has reliable red fall foliage (inset). (Image thanks to Proven Winners)

Proven Winner’s Lil’ Ditty witherod viburnum (Viburnum cassinoides Lil’ Ditty®, 1-2 feet, full sun to partial shade, Zones 3-8, eastern North America) is truly a tuffet of a miniature shrub. From late spring to midsummer it bears rounded clusters of white flowers with a mild honey-like fragrance, which bees like. In fall, its glossy leaves turn various shades of red, from the leaf edges inward.

Compact Cranberry Viburnum

Dwarf cranberry viburnum fall fruit
The fall fruits of dwarf cranberry viburnum are brilliant red and feed wildlife.

In fall, the brilliant red fruits of the American cranberry viburnum (Viburnum opulus var. americanum, full sun to partial shade, Zones 2-7, northern North America) glisten among its bright red and gold leaves. There are several compact varieties of this super hardy shrub from which to choose. The smallest is the soon-to-be-released ‘Jewell’ or ‘Jewell Box‘, which reaches a maximum of 2 feet and has reliable burgundy red fall color. The larger ‘Compactum’ grows to a height of 4-6 feet and bears copious red fruits that remain into winter until they are consumed by birds.

Planting Shrubs in Fall

Fafard Premium Natural & Organic Compost Blend pack

Thankfully all of the shrubs on this list are quite hardy, making them good candidates for fall planting. Before planting any shrub, be sure you have a smart planting plan and consider your plant’s needs with respect to light, soil, and elevation.
When planting a shrub, dig a hole that’s roughly twice the diameter of its root ball. Dig the hole deep enough so the top of the root ball is level with the surrounding soil. Before planting, gently loosen your shrub’s roots if they are densely intertwined (root bound). Then enrich the excavated soil with Fafard Premium Natural & Organic Compost. When planting, pack the soil around the root ball to remove any air pockets and cover all roots. Finally, lightly mulch around the shrub and water it well.
If fall weather remains dry, continue to provide supplementary water to encourage good establishment. Come spring, your new shrubs should shine through the season!

The Best Reblooming Shrubs for Summer

Panicle hydrangea
Panicle hydrangea blooms through much of the summer.

Flowering shrubs do lots of good things in the garden, but their length of bloom often disappoints.  Exceptions do occur, with hybrid roses being the most obvious and ubiquitous example.  They’re not the only shrubs that bloom long and well, though.  Here are seven of the best of the rest.  Their individual flowers may not be as voluptuous as those of a hybrid tea rose, but in other respects – including habit, foliage, and disease-resistance – they more than hold their own.

Littleleaf Lilac and Hybrids

Littleleaf lilac
Littleleaf lilac has smaller blooms that rebloom in midsummer.

Almost all lilacs are one-and-done bloomers.  Not so with littleleaf lilac ‘Superba’ (Syringa pubescens ssp. microphylla ‘Superba’).  Abundant clusters of sweet-scented, pale lilac-pink flowers open from reddish buds in mid-spring, a few days after those of common lilac.  Then, in midsummer, a miracle occurs, with a second flush of blooms developing on the current season’s growth.  Littleleaf lilac is also attractive out of bloom, forming a dense, rounded, 8-foot specimen clad in dainty, privet-like leaves.  Plant breeders have crossed ‘Superba’ with other lilacs to produce several repeat-blooming cultivars, including those in the Bloomerang® Series.   For maximum rebloom, plant ‘Superba’ and its offspring in full sun and fertile, loamy, near-neutral soil.  A spring top-dressing of Fafard® Premium Natural & Organic Compost is all to the good.  These lilacs do best in USDA Hardiness Zones 4 to 8.

Summer Snowflake Doublefile Viburnum

Summer snowflake
Summer snowflake is a reblooming doublefile viburnum. (Image by Russell Stafford)

Viburnums, like lilacs, typically flower for only a couple of weeks per year.  One of the few exceptions is the remarkable ‘Summer Snowflake’ (Viburnum plicatum ‘Summer Snowflake’), whose terraced branches are frosted with flat clusters of white flowers from mid-spring to early fall.  It also differs from other doublefile viburnums in its relatively compact, narrow habit (5 to 7 feet tall and wide).  Although lacking the wide-sweeping drama of full-sized doublefile cultivars, such as ‘Mariesii’ and ‘Shasta’, ‘Summer Snowflake’ literally makes a better fit for foundation plantings and other niches where space is limited.  The leaves take on smoky maroon tones in fall.  All doublefile viburnums perform best in sun to light shade and humus-rich soil, in USDA Hardiness Zones 5 to 9.

Weigela Sonic Bloom® Series

Weigela Sonic Bloom® Pink
Weigela Sonic Bloom® Pink offers bright color through summer. (Image by Proven Winners)

Many weigelas throw a few flowers now and then in the months following their main late-spring display.  This has inspired plant breeders to develop new Weigela (Weigela hybrids) cultivars that rebloom not demurely, but with abandon.  Those in the Sonic Bloom® Series are reputed to produce several good flushes of showy, trumpet-shaped blooms not just in late spring, but throughout summer and early fall.  Sonic Bloom® weigelas flower in pink, purple, or white, depending on the variety.  These relatively recent introductions have yet to prove their mettle in many parts of the U.S. – but they’re well worth a try in a sunny spot in USDA Hardiness Zones 5 to 8.  At 4 to 5 feet high and wide, they won’t take much space while you’re putting them through their paces.

Caucasian Daphne

A parent of the variegated, briefly blooming Daphne × burkwoodii ‘Carol Mackie’, Caucasian daphne (Daphne × transatlantica) is in most ways superior to its popular offspring.  Where it particularly outdistances ‘Carol’ is in its repeat, spring-to-fall display of tubular, white, sweet-scented blooms.  The dainty, oval, semi-evergreen leaves are also attractive and are strikingly variegated in forms such as ‘Summer Ice’.  Most varieties of this outstanding daphne top out at about 3 feet tall, with their branches splaying with age (or with heavy snow).  It does well in sun to light shade in USDA Hardiness Zones 5 to 8.

Panicle Hydrangea

'Pinky Winky' panicle hydrangea
The flowers of ‘Pinky Winky’ panicle hydrangea darken in color as they age. (Image by Jessie Keith)

Not many years ago, panicle hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata) was represented in gardens almost exclusively by the mop-headed cultivar ‘Grandiflora’ (more commonly known as peegee hydrangea).  Today, numerous outstanding varieties of this exceptionally hardy species (USDA Hardiness Zones 3 to 9) have found their way into horticulture, including many with lacy, conical flower clusters rather than weighty mops.  Most Hydrangea paniculata cultivars bear white-flowered panicles from mid to late summer, but other flowering times and colors also occur.  Look for ‘Limelight’, with full flower-heads that age to chartreuse-green; ‘Pinky Winky’, an early- to late-summer bloomer that evolves from white to rose-pink; and the late-blooming (and magnificent) ‘Tardiva’, with large lacy spires of white flowers from late summer to frost.  These large shrubs can be cut back severely in early spring to keep them in bounds.  Dwarf varieties such as ‘Little Lamb’ require no size control.

Butterfly Bush

Butterfly on purple butterfly bush
Sterile, seed-free butterfly bushes are just as pretty but don’t self sow.

How can we not mention the ever-popular, somewhat cold-tender butterfly bush (Buddleia davidii) and its many hybrids, which draw in butterflies over much of summer with their steeples of fragrant blooms in a variety of colors?  Recent developments in the butterfly bush universe include the introduction of several compact, sterile cultivars with especially prolonged bloom and no pesky seedlings.  These include ‘Ice Chip’, ‘Lavender Chip’, and ‘Purple Haze’.  Buddleia davidii and its hybrids do best in full sun in USDA Hardiness Zones 5 to 9 and usually benefit from a hard early-spring pruning, even in areas where they don’t die back.

Flowering Abelia

Flowering abelia
Flowering abelia is a long bloomer that will flower up until frost.

Popular in the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the U.S., flowering abelia (Abelia × grandiflora and kin) are small to medium shrubs that could be used much more in the northern fringes of their USDA Hardiness Zones 5 to 9 hardiness range.  Their dainty, fragrant bells – in various shades of pink or white – cluster on arching stems from midsummer into fall.  Small, oval leaves add to the delicate, fine-textured feel of these quietly attractive plants.  Most flowering abelias are evergreen to semi-evergreen into USDA Hardiness Zone 6.   In zones 5 and 6, flowering abelias often work well as winter die-back shrubs, resprouting in spring and flowering in late summer and fall.  In all hardiness zones, they benefit from early-spring pruning of snarled or winter-killed stems.

Native American Roses for Wildscaping

Pasture rose
The pasture rose is one of several native roses suitable for wildscaping.

What is a Native American rose?  Is it the beach rose (Rosa rugosa) that grows vigorously on the sand dunes of northeastern America,

Wild rosehips
Wild roses have pretty fall hips (R. woodsii)

or the wreath rose (Rosa multiflora) that rampages all over the eastern half of the United States?  Could it be the Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata), which grows freely in Georgia? The answer is none of the above.  All are prolific, tough species roses, but none are native to North America.

True native roses, which are both beautiful and useful for wild and not-so-wild landscapes, are a bit harder to find at local nurseries, but they are worth seeking out. They look great in wild landscapes, offering delicate fragrant flowers and colorful hips. Bees and wildlife love them!

Native American Roses

Over 20 rose species are native to various parts of North America, but some are rarer than others.  Most bloom only once a year and bear single, pollinator-friendly single flowers in white, pink, or rose.  When the petals fade, native roses develop nutritious scarlet hips that are a treat for birds and animals, not to mention the humans who sometimes forage for them.  Some natives are armed to the teeth with lots of sharp prickles, making them perfect for boundary or privacy hedges.  Species like Rosa blanda, which feature relatively smooth stems, can hold their own in more “civilized” situations.

The following native roses have the widest North American geographic distribution, making them good candidates for wild gardens.

Rosa Carolina
Rosa carolina

Pasture or Carolina Rose (Rosa carolina): Sometimes called the “pasture rose”, fragrant Rosa carolina roams much farther than the boundaries of its namesake state, surviving in dry open meadows and along forest edges.  It is native to the eastern half of North America and succeeds especially well in the southeastern United States.  The prickly plants grow 3-feet tall and wide with pink flowers that bloom from May to June, depending on the location.  As with many species roses, petal color fades to near-white as the blooms age.  The crisp green foliage turns beautiful shades of orange-red in the fall. Though quite shade tolerant, this disease-susceptible rose flowers and performs best in full sun.

Rosa virginiana
Rosa virginiana

Virginia Rose (Rosa virginiana): Rosa virginiana is a taller shrub rose (5- to 7-feet tall and 3-feet wide) that is less geographically widespread than Rosa carolina. It sports single, fragrant blooms that may be pink, yellow, or rose-purple and flower from June to August.  It requires full to partial sun and is tolerant to a wide range of soil types, from moist soils to dry. Leaves turn fire orange-red in fall alongside deep red hips.

Rosa blanda
Rosa blanda (by Cillas)

Prairie Rose (Rosa blanda): This sweet thornless rose bears several evocative nicknames, including “prairie rose”, “Hudson’s Bay rose” or “Labrador rose”, for its favored locales.  Cold-hardy and tough, it is native across northeastern North America where it survives in open, dry, sunny prairies and open woods.  Its nearly thornless stems and mounded habit make it a good candidate for use in “wild” planting schemes.  Flower color varies from dark pink to white and blooming may occur from June to August.  It only reaches 4-feet tall and wide, but it tends to spread, so it needs elbow room.  Native plant lovers can rejoice in the fact that the relatively smooth stems make necessary pruning easier.

Rosa woodsii
Rosa woodsii (Image by Doug Waylett)

Wood’s Rose (Rosa woodsii): This is one of the better natives for colorful flowers and hips. Pink-flowered Wood’s rose is a westerner by inclination, found in growing wild in the western half of the United States and much of Canada.  It also goes by the name “mountain rose” because it succeeds in challenging high-altitude conditions.  Small, medium-pink flowers appear annually from May to July on upright shrubs adorned with blue-green foliage and a bumper crop of prickles.  Growing up to 5-feet tall, Wood’s rose is extremely cold tolerant.  In addition to the flowers, the shrubs produce loads of bright, teardrop-shaped hips and have fiery fall leaf color.

Rosa palustris
Rosa palustris

Swamp Rose (Rosa palustris): If your wild garden is damp, Rosa palustris may be right for you.  Native to the eastern half of North America, swamp rose is a large shrub (8-12-feet tall) that likes to be sited at the water’s edge, where it can commune with moisture-loving sedges, iris, and other, similarly inclined plants.  It will tolerate some shade but it blooms and performs best in full sun. The late spring blooms are lightly scented and may be deep rose pink or pale pink.  The prickles are hooked, which makes pruning a challenge.

Rosa setigera
Rosa setigera (Image by Cillas)

Climbing Prairie Rose (Rosa setigera): This spring-blooming climbing rose offers blooms that range from deep magenta to white. Sometimes known as the “bramble-leafed”, it sends out long, flexible shoots that enable it to scramble up to 15 feet, making it useful as a substitute for non-native climbing roses.  If trained on an arch or trellis and provided full sun and good draining soil, climbing prairie rose can be a show-stopper.  The fragrant pink blooms appear in clusters that develop into showy red hips in fall. Wise gardeners remove the root suckers that inevitable sprout at the base, enabling the plant to shoot skyward without producing a thicket underneath.

Landscaping with Wild Roses

Remember that wild landscapes and gardens can be “wild” without looking completely unruly. They are created using native species and emphasize biodiversity, habitat creation, sustainability, and beauty. Plant placement can be naturalistic while also be civilized and pleasing to the eye.
Fafard Premium Topsoil packTo use native roses most effectively, provide enough space.  Many, but not all varieties grow tall and relatively wide, with a tendency to form dense thickets if left to their own devices.  They look great planted alongside bold native Adam’s needle (Yucca filamentosa), breezy native bunch grasses like Shenandoah switch grass (Panicum virgatum ‘Shenandoah’), and native purple coneflowers (Echinacea purpurea).

Species roses have gotten by on their own for millennia, but they will respond with more flowers and hips if given a good start with a quality soil amendment like Fafard® Premium Topsoil, alfalfa meal natural fertilizer, and regular of water. All bloom and perform better if given open air and full sun. Prune seasonally to keep plants tidy and to promote good airflow, which will dissuade fungal diseases.
Native roses are not available in big-box stores or even most garden centers.  The best way to locate specific species is to seek out mail order nurseries that specialize in species roses. High Country Roses is one such source.

Rosa rugosa by the lake
Rosa rugosa is a common garden rose found on North American beaches, but they are not native! (Image by Jessie Keith)

Colorful Tropical Hibiscus

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ‘Chiffon Breeze’

Giant blooms bursting with color—these make Chinese or Hawaiian hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) a floral favorite in sizzling summer gardens. Huge variety is another perk of these tried-and-true tropical shrubs. There are literally hundreds of types that come in many floral color variations and sizes. And, their familiar good looks bring to mind Hawaiian shirts, leis, and landscapes. What’s not to love?
Native throughout tropical Asia, these hibiscus have been bred for centuries for their big, beautiful flowers. Through woody, they are fast growing and ever blooming, making them ideal for large patio containers and bed plantings. Their lush, deep green foliage creates a perfect foil for the big beautiful flowers. Some leaves are even glossy. These plants are only hardy in USDA Hardiness Zones 9-11, which means they will only survive winters in the most southerly regions of the United States. But, they will overwinter well in a sunny, warm indoor location where winters are cold. A bright south-facing window, sun room, or conservatory is perfect.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis TRADEWINDS™ BAJA BREEZE

The flowers are between 4 and 8″ wide and comprised of five large, open petals. The largest varieties are the size of dessert plates. They come in loads of bright, tropical colors to include all shades of pink, red, orange, yellow, and white. Unusual colors, such as near black, gray, and purplish hues are also common. Many blooms are bicolored and tricolored, with radiating rings of bright color. At the center of each bloom is a protruding pistil lined with colorful stamens, which is attractive and interesting in its own right.
There are literally hundreds of varieties of Hawaiian hibiscus. The International Hibiscus Society has a full register of every type under the sun. Anyone interested in learning more about these beautiful flowers should have a look. The wide ranging varieties give a complete picture of all this plant has to offer. To get a good look at exciting newer, interesting selections, check out the offerings of specialty growers, such as Charles Black’s Hidden Valley Hibiscus. His amazing hibiscus may be just enough to hook you!
Garden center varieties are often bred for compact habits and high flower production. The Tradewinds varieties are particularly nice, being developed to produce lots of flowers on tidy plants ideal for container growing. Though the plants are small, they always grow and flower best in large containers that allow their roots to spread and easily access water and nutrients. Large containers also need to be watered less often.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 'Erin Rachel'
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ‘Erin Rachel’

Grow these beautiful flowers anywhere there is sun. They prefer fertile soil that drains well and perform best with some supplementary fertilizer for flowers. Starting with a fortified potting mix, such as Black Gold’s All-Purpose Potting Soil with RESiLIENCE, is a good idea. Potted plants appreciate large containers and will fill them in quickly, if plants are happy and well-tended. In warmer zones, these shrubs are best planted in garden and shrub borders mixed with other lush, tropical plants loaded with bright color.

The Best Landscape Hydrangeas

Best Landscape Hydrangeas Featured Image
Hydrangeas, circa 1970, were a bit of a bore, represented by a few stodgy standbys such as the Victorian, mophead-flowered PeeGee hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata ‘Grandiflora’). Today, however, they’re the epitome of horticultural cool, with numerous new and exciting varieties to choose from.

Panicle Hydrangea Hybrids

Hydrangea paniculata 'Tardiva'
Hydrangea paniculata ‘Tardiva’

Witness, for example, what’s happening in the world of panicle hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata). Where once there was only ‘Grandiflora’, there now are dozens of seductive cultivars of this East Asian native, in a variety of shapes and colors. Many bear lacy, white steeples in the manner of ‘Tardiva’, an old (and – until recently—neglected) variety that is still unsurpassed for its showy blooms that peak in August and September, weeks later than most other paniculatas. Comprising both large, sterile florets and small, fertile florets, the blossoms possess an airy elegance that eludes ‘Grandiflora’ and other sterile-flowered, mophead forms. Numerous other excellent ‘Tardiva’ types – such as ‘Kyushu’ and ‘Chantilly Lace’ – have recently entered the scene. Most flower in midsummer.
Fafard Garden Manure Blend pack

Some recent cultivars come in hues and sizes that are new to the paniculata tribe. The lacy spires of ‘Pink Diamond’ and the early-summer-blooming ‘Quick Fire’ gradually evolve from white to dark pink, passing through a beguiling bicolored phase along the way. In contrast, ‘Limelight’ deepens its snowball blooms to an astonishing chartreuse-green that glows most brightly in partial shade. The dwarf cultivar ‘Little Lime’ does similar things on a smaller scale (4 to 5 feet tall rather than the typical 8 to 12). It exemplifies another welcome paniculata trend: compact cultivars that fit nicely in smaller gardens. White-flowered examples include ‘Little Lamb’ and ‘Bobo’.
Even the stodgy old PeeGee hydrangea has undergone a makeover, with the introduction of several cultivars (including ‘Unique and ‘Webb’s’) that outdo ‘Grandiflora’ in the size and showiness of their snowball inflorescences.
Most paniculata cultivars respond well to severe pruning in early spring, which restricts their height, increases their inflorescence size, and slightly delays their bloom. In whatever form, they’re among the hardiest and most adaptable ornamental shrubs, thriving in full to partial sun from USDA hardiness zones 3 to 8.

Big Leaf Hydrangea Hybrids

Hydrangea macrophylla 'Harlequin'
Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Harlequin’ only performs well in USDA zones 6b to 9. (photo by Jessie Keith)

Cold-hardiness is much more of an issue for undoubtedly the most popular hydrangea species. Prized in USDA zones 6b to 9 for its reliable summer display of showy blue, pink, or white blossoms, bigleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) has long been the despair of gardeners in zones 5 to 6a. There, it typically dies to the ground in winter, resulting in a disappointing summer display of lush foliage and few to no blooms. Breeders are hard at work, however, on a new generation of “re-blooming” cultivars that flower on the current year’s growth. Several have made it to market, including the much-hyped blue-flowered mophead ‘Endless Summer’.

To date, none of these ballyhooed newcomers are consistent performers in zones 4 and 5, alas. But for gardeners in milder zones, these and other recent introductions make for a larger selection of Hydrangea macrophylla cultivars than ever before.

Several other highly ornamental East Asian hydrangeas (such as Hydrangea serrata, H. aspera, and H. heteromalla) are increasingly available from American nurseries. All are well worth trying, where hardy.

Smooth Hydrangea Hybrids

Ivory hydrangeas
Most new sooth hydrangeas have attractive globes of ivory, sterile florets.

Two eastern North American species have also seen a significant fashion upgrade in the past few decades. Fifty years ago, smooth hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens) meant one thing: ‘Grandiflora’, commonly known as Hills of Snow. A classic pass-along plant, this suckering, 4-foot shrub formed many a backyard thicket, topped in summer by mildly ornamental, loosely structured, 6-inch globes of dull-white sterile florets.

Today, ‘Grandiflora’ has numerous successors, most operating on a grander (and floppier) scale. Their queen mother is the ubiquitous ‘Annabelle’, whose foot-wide midsummer domes are notorious for toppling. Her several imitators, such as ‘Incrediball’, also topple, as does the recently introduced pink-flowered snowball, ‘Invincibelle Spirit’.

Gardeners looking for a sturdier (and more charming) arborescens variety can opt for the ravishing ‘Mary Nell’, which bears showy, stylish, snow-white lacecaps on stout 4-foot stems. Another wonderful option is Hydrangea arborescens ssp. radiata, whose leaves are often lined underneath with a luminous silver-white felting that flashes in the breeze.

Oakleaf Hydrangea Hybrids

Hydrangea quercifolia 'Alice'
Hydrangea quercifolia ‘Alice’ (photo by Jessie Keith)

Oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia) is yet another eastern U.S. native that offers many more delicious possibilities than ever before, including several pink-flowered and double-flowered varieties. The best (such as ‘Snow Queen’) produce showy spires on strong flop-resistant stems furnished with bold, deeply lobed leaves that turn burgundy-red in fall.

Full-size selections grow to 7 or more feet, but gardeners with more limited space can now choose from a bevy of excellent compact-growing cultivars including ‘Munchkin’, ‘PeeWee’, and Sikes Dwarf’. Of particular note is ‘Ruby Slippers’, a compact variety whose flowers age from the usual white to a much less typical deep pink.

Hydrangeas grow well in a variety of partial shade and sun locations, so long as they have fertile garden soil that drains well. Amending yearly with organic amendments, such as Fafard Garden Mature Blend, and top dressing with leaf mulch will help support plants and encourage best growth.

Hydrangea quercifolia 'Sikes' Dwarf'
Hydrangea quercifolia ‘Sikes’ Dwarf’

Flowering Shrubs for Fall

Lespedeza thunbergii 'Gibraltar'
The pink flowers of Lespedeza thunbergii ‘Gibraltar’ add welcome color to the late-season landscape.

Late summer and fall is a time when most gardens (and gardeners) could use a bit of a pick-me-up. And no plants are better suited for the job than the relatively few shrubs that flower in the growing season’s waning weeks. Whether used as single specimens to spice up drab niches, or combined with other colorful fall plants (such as autumn crocus, Japanese anemones, beautyberries, goldenrods, and sourwood) in a collective blaze of autumnal glory, fall-blooming shrubs are essential elements of a four-season garden.

Hibiscus syriacus 'Helene'
Hibiscus syriacus ‘Helene’ is one of the prettier varieties of this late-season bloomer.

Quite a few fall-blooming shrubs commence flowering in spring or summer, thus providing multi-season display. Among the longest-blooming of this lot is Daphne × transatlantica. A parent (along with Daphne cneorum) of the much more widely grown Daphne × burkwoodii, this small shrub produces flushes of bloom from mid-spring to fall, long after ‘Carol Mackie’ and other burkwoodii cultivars have ceased flowering. With its clustered, frosty-white, fragrant blooms and dainty, blue-tinged, semi-evergreen leaves, it makes an ideal candidate for a pathside or patio planting. Its variegated cultivar ‘Summer Ice’ has creamy-white leaf margins. Plants are hardy to USDA Hardiness Zone 5, and are best sited where their rather brittle branches will not be subjected to extra-heavy snow loads.

More familiar to gardeners are several other shrubs that flower from summer into early fall. Butterfly bush (Buddleia davidii) produces large candles of fragrant flowers in a range from violet to lilac-pink to white. Butterflies adore them. A somewhat cold-tender shrub, butterfly bush is root-hardy to USDA Zone 5, often dying to the ground in the colder sectors of its hardiness range. Even where it’s reliably root-hardy, it usually benefits from a severe pruning in early spring, growing to several feet tall by midsummer. Many cultivars are available, including the outstanding, compact hybrids ‘Ellen’s Blue’, ‘Blue Chip’, and ‘Ice Chip’. This species seeds itself profusely in warmer areas of its range, where it is sometimes considered a nuisance.

Hydrangea paniculata 'Tardiva'
The large flower panicles of Hydrangea paniculata ‘Tardiva’ are large and upright.

Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), like Buddleia davidii, is a large, fragrant-flowered, butterfly-thronged shrub that usually dies to the ground in the northern fringe of its USDA zone 6 to 9 hardiness range (but attains tree-like proportions in warmer districts). The divided, five-fingered leaves are spicily pungent. Steeples of lilac-blue or white blooms appear from late summer to early fall, on stems that grow to several feet in a single season. Notable cultivars of chaste tree include blue-flowered ‘Shoal Creek’ and white ‘Silver Spire’. Vitex fanciers in USDA zone 5 might want to try chaste tree’s hardier relative, Vitex negundo var. incisa, which has more elegant, finely divided foliage and wispy sprays of lilac-blue flowers.

Rose of Sharon (Hibiscus syricacus) is yet another favorite that flowers from summer into early fall. The large, somewhat floppy blooms bear little resemblance to those of their namesake, nor do their lobed, vaguely maple-like leaves. First introduced to gardens in the sixteenth century (or earlier), this large shrub or small tree has given rise to numerous selections with floral colors ranging from blue to violet to burgundy to pink to white. Among the best are the sterile, white-flowered ‘Helene’ and ‘Diana’, which unlike most other cultivars will not self-sow. Hardy to USDA Zone 5, rose of Sharon will recover quickly and bloom if killed back in a severe winter (or if heavily pruned in early spring).

Buddleja davidii 'Peakeep' (PEACOCK™, ENGLISH BUTTERFLY™ SERIES)
The bright flowers of Buddleja davidii ‘Peakeep’ (PEACOCK™) will bloom until first frost. (photo by Jessie Keith)

The large, white, cylindrical flower clusters of panicle hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata) typically appear in midsummer. The cultivar ‘Tardiva’, however, comes into bloom weeks later than most other selections, peaking in late summer and early fall. Lacier and more elongated than those of the familiar peegee hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata ‘Grandiflora’), the flower clusters are especially large and late on plants that receive a severe pruning in early spring (plants grow to 7 feet tall in one season). This rock-hardy large shrub succeeds into USDA Zone 3.

In contrast to the above shrubs, Thunberg’s bush clover (Lespedeza thunbergii) concentrates all its bloom in September and early October, enveloping its arching branches in a lavish, vibrant display of rose-purple flowers. As with many late-blooming ornamental shrubs, it sometimes dies back in severe winters, returning from the ground to bloom the following autumn. It’s usually sold in the form of ‘Gibralter’, whose 6-foot stems splay under the weight of its prolific flowers. Other cultivars with pink or white flowers are sometimes available. For tidier winter looks, these shrubs can be pruned back in fall and mulched with Fafard Natural & Organic Compost to keep them protected through winter.

Last in flowering time but certainly not in garden value is a species from forests of central and eastern North America. In the wild, witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginianaLespedeza thunbergii 'Gibraltar') forms a large, often straggly understory shrub whose sparse, spidery yellow flowers are hidden among its yellowing leaves from early to mid-autumn. In the garden, however, it’s an entirely different animal – especially in the form of the recently introduced ‘Harvest Moon’. Bearing a showy profusion of relatively large flowers on naked branches, this cultivar’s floral display rivals that of winter-blooming witch-hazels such as ‘Arnold Promise’. Give it a good, humus-rich soil in sun to partial shade and it will develop into a dense 12-foot shrub that acquits itself well even when not dazzling onlookers with its fragrant, sunny blooms. Where space is limited, try ‘Little Suzie’, a compact, 5-foot witch-hazel selection that works well in foundation plantings, hedges, and other tighter niches.

Gardening with Azaleas

Rhododendron 'Hinode-giri' (Kurume Hybrid)
Azalea ‘Hinode-giri’ (Kurume Hybrid) is a bright selection for spring. (Photo by Jessie Keith)

A single azalea, cloaked in bright petals, is the essence of spring. Grouped together, these versatile shrubs make an elegant tapestry in semi-shaded areas of the garden. With single or double flowers in white, shades of pink, red, purple, yellow and orange, the artistic possibilities are unlimited. Achieving great garden effects with one or more of the many azalea species and varieties requires little more than knowledge of their basic cultural requirements, a bit of garden or container space, and imagination.

Azalea Basics

Rhododendron 'Josephine Klinger' (Ghent Group)
The sunset flowers of azalea ‘Josephine Klinger’ (Ghent Group) offer luscious springtime color. (Photo by Jessie Keith)

All azaleas belong to the rhododendron genus and have Latin names that begin with the word “rhododendron.” So do their close relatives, the ornamental plants that go by the common name, “rhododendron.” This can cause confusion for novice azalea buyers. Fortunately, differences between azaleas and rhododendrons are fairly easy to spot, even if plant tags are missing. Azaleas are generally small-leafed deciduous or evergreen shrubs with loose clusters of fragrant, funnel or trumpet-shaped flowers. Rhododendrons are most often evergreens with larger leaves and fat trusses of bell-shaped blooms.

Azalea Cultural Requirements

A mature azalea–which can grow anywhere from two to eight feet tall–may look big and strong, but its roots are shallow and need consistently moist, well-drained soil that is on the acid end of the pH spectrum. If you are not sure about your soil chemistry, use a soil test kit, available at nurseries and garden centers, to find out. If soil is neutral or alkaline, amend with a product like Fafard Sphagnum Peat Moss to help increase acidity. Preserve soil moisture by mulching azaleas with at least two inches of organic material, spread in a two-foot radius around the base of each plant. If pruning is needed, do so immediately after flowering.

Azalea Stars for Shade

Pink Rhododendron canescens
The palest pink flowered mountain azalea (Rhododendron canescens) is a great native for the garden. (Photo by Jessie Keith)

In the wild, azaleas are natural understory plants that thrive in light shade. This trait makes them perfect for the semi-shaded or woodland garden, where the colorful blooms lighten things up in mid to late spring. If you have room, plant varieties like fragrant, pink ‘Candy Lights’ in groups of three for a dramatic impact. Underplant azaleas with spring bulbs for early interest and install hosta varieties for color and texture later on. Add foliage color by using a variegated azalea such as the semi-evergreen ‘Bollywood’, featuring green leaves edged in cream.

Native Azaleas

Native azaleas, including the fiery golden-orange flame azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum) and pale pink flowered mountain azalea (Rhododendron canescens), make excellent additions to native plant gardens. The blooms attract butterflies and hummingbirds, while the fragrance lures human admirers. Place close to paths or seating areas to take advantage of the scent. For a succession of bloom and three-season interest, try combining flame azalea with another native shrub, oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), which bears white flower panicles that age to pink and oak-like leaves that redden in the fall.

Container Azaleas

Glenn Dale azaleas at U.S. National Arboretum. (Photo by Tim McCabe, USDA)
At the U.S. National Arboretum, Glenn Dale azaleas flourish. (Photo by Tim McCabe, USDA)

Bloom-a-Thon ‘White’, which tops out at 36 inches tall, is typical of smaller azaleas that work well in large containers. The Bloom-a-Thon and Encore series, like other compact, reblooming varieties, have the added bonus of flowering once in mid-spring and again in early summer, with the possibility of an additional flush of bloom in early fall. For a continual feast of flowers, underplant containers of reblooming azaleas with New Guinea impatiens in complementary or contrasting colors. Containerized azaleas benefit from the good nutrition and water retention provided by a quality potting medium like Fafard Natural and Organic Potting Soil.

Azalea Colors

Sometimes azalea lovers get carried away with color, planting magenta, orange and pink varieties close together. While this may stop traffic in the neighborhood, it also tends to create visual chaos. Make the landscape more coherent by choosing one color or color range, such as pinks. If there is room, plan for a succession of bloom by planting an early blooming azalea, like pink-flowered ‘Camilla’s Blush’ and a later flowering specimen in the same color range. ‘Weston’s Lollipop’ is one example. Underplant with perennials and annuals in the same hue. For a sophisticated finish, add a few contrasting companion plants in a shade that is on the opposite side of the color wheel. ‘Lime Green’ flowering tobacco (Nicotiana alata), for example, makes a perfect foil for a pink planting scheme.

Fast-to-Force Flowering Branches for Indoor Arrangements

Early-flowering Cornus mas has great branches for forcing.
Early-flowering Cornus mas has great branches for forcing.

So many beautiful spring-flowering trees and shrubs have branches that can be forced early for a little indoor spring in late winter. The process is simple but forcing times vary from plant to plant. Fast-to-force branches are the most satisfying, and the color they bring to the table never disappoints. All you need are some shears, water, flower food, and a little patience.
The earliest flowering shrubs of the spring are often the best to choose. They typically only require short forcing times. Many of the early bloomers are fragrant as well as colorful, which helps them make an even more pronounced statement for table arrangements.

Pussy willow branches force and root quickly for pretty cut flowers and new shrub starts to share with friends.
Pussy willow branches force and root quickly for pretty cut flowers and new shrub starts to share with friends.

Some of the better common quick-blooming branches for forcing are golden Forsythia (Forsythia x intermedia), fothergilla (Fothergilla spp.), pussy willows (Salix caprea), curly willow (Salix matsudana ‘Tortuosa), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.), Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas), serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.), and bridal wreath spirea (Spiraea prunifolia), all of which will force in around two weeks. The branches of many popular flowers shrubs that bloom a little later, like Rhododendron, dogwood, cherry, and lilac, typically take more time to force, often between four and five weeks.

How and When to Harvest Branches

Branches only force well in late-winter when they have been outside and dormant for long enough through winter.  Late January to February is the perfect window for harvest time.
When pruning branches, be sure to selectively remove those that should be pruned off anyway. That way, you will be killing two birds with one stone. Crossing, old, or out-of-place branches are the best to prune off and bring inside.

Homemade floral preservative
The best homemade floral preservative contains warm water, lemon-lime soda, and a little bleach.

Cut branches with sharp, bypass pruners as opposed to anvil types that crush branch tissue.  (I like Felco 2 classic pruners.) Clean cuts will enable branches to take up water and food more efficiently, which will result in prettier, more successful flowering. Make branch cuts ¼ inch above a bud and select branches between 1 to 3 feet long, depending on the size and impact of the display you want for the final arrangement. Cut branches should be placed in a container of water immediately, so have a bucket or jar on hand at cutting time.

Forcing Branches

Bring the branches indoors, and using a floral knife, cut the bases of the branches at 45 degree angles. Then immediately place them back in the water. This maximizes their ability to take in nutrients and water. Cold water is best, especially if outdoor temperatures are below the freezing point. Branches should always be held upright in the container, and the water should only cover the first inch of the branch bases.
After a day or so, replace the container water with slightly warm water, and add a homemade flower preservative made from the following: 2 cups lemon-lime soda, 2 cups warm water, and ½ teaspoon bleach (recipe care of Purdue Extension). At this point, the branches need to be stored in a cool place with moderate light, and the container’s water level needs to be maintained at its original depth. After a week or so, the buds should start to plump up and show some color.

Forsythia branches in blue vase
Forsythia branches are some of the easiest to force!

Once the signs of bud break appear, place your branches in a warmer, brighter spot with indirect sunlight, and arrange them in a vase with added flower food. In a matter of days, they should be blooming and beautiful!
After flowering, the bases of some of your branches may root. This is most common with pussy willow and curly willow. If this happens, be sure to pot up your cuttings.
Plant the rooted cuttings in 1-gallon pots filled with Fafard Professional Potting Mix, and keep the pots moist in a cool, well-lit location until the threat of frost has passed. Once the weather has warmed up, the cuttings should have rooted well enough to be planted in the ground. You might even want to share some with friends, so they can force their own winter branches in the future and keep the cycle of sharing going.