Archive: Dec 2016

  1. Orgill Dealer Market, Spring 2017

    downloadThe Orgill Dealer Market, Spring 2017 will be held in New Orleans, Louisiana from February 16-18, 2017 at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center. Fafard and Sun Gro Horticulture will be there along with 1,000 different exhibitors sharing their latest products with store retailers. Stay on top of industry trends, and scope out the best product deals of 2017! Our booth numbers are 5319 & 5320! 

  2. Gardening with English Holly

    holly branh with green leaves and red berries

    Ilex aquifolium ‘Argenteo Marginata’

    The holly and the ivy,
    Now both are full well grown.
    Of all the trees that are in the wood,
    The holly bears the crown.

     

    The words of the traditional carol, which originated in England in the early 19th century, neatly sum up the enduring appeal of English holly (Ilex aquifolium). While some people may only think of holly as a source of  holiday decorations, it is also an excellent, evergreen garden plant.

    Illustration_Ilex_aquifolium0You can’t beat English holly for its substantial, lustrous leaves and bright berries, both of which stand out, especially in the winter months when color in the garden is hard to come by.  Left to their own devices, hollies can grow to be substantial landscape specimens, topping out at 30 to 50-feet tall and half as wide.  Pruned to smaller sizes, the plants can fit a variety of situations. Holly hedges, for example, work well  in formal garden settings, as well as for boundary plantings.  As single specimens, the plants can be left to grow naturally, limbed up into tree form or carefully pruned into formal geometric shapes.

    Though best known for its decorative qualities, English holly is also useful for habitat gardens.  The tiny white flowers that appear in mid spring are excellent nectar sources for bees, while the berries are favorites of birds and other small animals. Dense branching and leaf configuration means that full-grown hollies can be veritable “bird condos”, providing nesting sites and cover.  Best of all, holly is relatively unattractive to the deer that bedevil many gardeners

    There are over 400 holly species in the world, and cultivated varieties of English holly are among the best known.  The genus name “Ilex” was bestowed upon the plant by Carl Linneaus, and the Ilex aquifolium was described by Linnaeus in 1753. The species name, “aquifolium”, means “with pointed leaves.”

    And those pointed, spiny leaves make some people wary of the English varieties.  New growth tends to have sharper edges than older leaves, so stout garden gloves are a good idea when pruning or handling holly.

    Holly with bright red berries covered in snow and ice

    Frost-covered Ilex aquifolium leaves and berries

    The  happiest English hollies grow in USDA Plant Hardiness zones 6b or 7 through 9. Some varieties, like ‘Twenty Below’ are more cold hardy and can be grown successfully in the colder parts of Zone 6, or possibly some parts of Zone 5. At the colder end of the hardiness range, site hollies where they will have some protection from cold winter winds. The plants prefer sun to light shade and grow best in soil that is on the acid end of the pH spectrum.  Usually young hollies are available in containers or as larger, balled-and-burlapped specimens. Plant in spring, if  possible, in well-drained soil, amended with a high-quality amendment like Fafard® Garden Manure Blend or Black Gold® Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss.  Water thoroughly when installing the holly and continue to water plants in the first few weeks while they establish new roots.

    Garden Manure BlendHollies are dioecious, meaning that shrubs have either female (berry producing) or male flowers. If you want a holly with abundant berries for holiday decorations or landscape color, you will have to act as a horticultural matchmaker.  In order for female plants to produce crops of  berries, compatible male plants must be planted nearby as pollenizers, preferably within 30 to 40 feet of female plants.  Insects, especially bees, do the actual pollination and one male holly can pollinate several females.  When you buy female plants, check with your nursery or garden center for compatible male varieties.  A few English hollies, like ‘Post Office’, are self-fertile and do not need a companion male plant. The best time to prune holly is in late spring to early summer, but remember that pruning female plants will reduce the number of fall berries. Only prune when it is absolutely necessary for the health and appearance of the plant.

    English holly 1

    The non-fruiting ‘Silver Queen’ is a great selection for areas where English holly is invasive.

    To spice up your evergreen array, use variegated English hollies, like the cream-edged Ilex aquifolium ‘Argenteo Marginata’  and yellow-edged ‘Lily Gold’.  These are often somewhat smaller than the species, but they can used in the same ways in the garden.  The edges of ‘Lily Gold’ also turn slightly pink in cold weather. Another attractive form is green-leafed ‘Teufel’s Zero’, a female variety with slender, weeping branches and excellent cold tolerance.

    As with many species that originated elsewhere and made good in the New World, English holly comes with some caveats.  It has been reported to be invasive in parts of eastern and western Canada, the Pacific Northwest, and northwestern California.  In these areas, it may be wiser to choose non-berried male selections with exemplary foliage, such as the confusingly named ‘Silver Queen’. This male form has wonderfully dark green leaves edged in ivory.

  3. Elegant, Evergreen Magnolias

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    Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) is graced with outstanding evergreen foliage and glorious bowl-shaped spring flowers. (image by Pam Beck)

    Gardening in eastern North America has many challenges.  But it also has many glories. Among the latter are the two evergreen magnolia species that call the region home.  Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) and evergreen forms of sweetbay magnolia (Magnolia virginiana var. australis) have it all: handsome gray bark; large, sweet-scented, creamy-white flowers in late spring (and sporadically until fall); and evergreen leaves that take center stage in winter.

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    Southern magnolias add evergreen beauty to dull winter landscapes. (Photo by Jessie Keith)

    These native beauties are also more cold-tolerant than most gardeners know.  Although they hail from the Southeast United States, they succeed in cultivation into USDA Zone 5b.  Centerpieces of many a Mid-Atlantic and Southeast garden, they’re also capable of making a statement in parts of New England, New York,  and the Midwest.

    Southern magnolia is one of those big, bold, primordial plants that looks like it just dropped in from the Cretaceous.  Indeed, its ancestors dominated much of Earth’s vegetation some 70- to 90-million years ago, when dinosaurs roamed the planet.  But this magnificent magnolia also works just fine as a visually dominant specimen tree for twenty-first century landscapes.

    In its boldest forms, Magnolia grandiflora takes the primordial look to awe-inspiring lengths (and breadths).  The aptly named ‘Goliath’ (and the somewhat similar ‘Gloriosa’) produces enormous cupped flowers of ivory that open to a foot or more across, displayed against large, polished, relatively broad leaves.  The flowers of ‘Samuel Sommer’ are even larger (to 14 inches across), and its leaves have striking rust-brown felting on their undersides.  Selected for its abundance of bloom, ‘Majestic Beauty’ also features immense deep green leaves and a symmetrical, broadly conical growth habit.  Cultivars ‘Angustifolia’ and ‘Lanceolata’ have narrower leaves, felted brown underneath.

    Magnolia grandiflora 'Edith Bogue'

    The more delicate ‘Edith Bogue’ is best espaliered against a sturdy, protective wall.

    Although typically forming a slow-growing, 40- to 60-foot tree, Southern magnolia sometimes assumes more compact forms, as in the narrowly conical, 30-foot-tall ‘Little Gem’.  Its 4-inch-wide flowers are relatively precocious (most Southern magnolias varieties take several years to a decade to come to bloom), and as with most varieties they recur sparingly after the main flush in late spring.

    Two other compact Magnolia grandiflora cultivars are of particular interest to Northern gardeners.  Both ‘Bracken’s Brown Beauty’ and ‘Edith Bogue’ have a good chance of succeeding into USDA Zone 5b in sites protected from winter sun and harsh northwest winds.  For sheer hardiness and sturdiness, ‘Bracken’s Brown Beauty’ can’t be beat, although even this toughest of Southern magnolias will go brownish-tan in cold, Zone-6 winters.  The slightly more delicate ‘Edith Bogue’ is notorious for losing limbs to heavy winter snow, and functions best in North gardens as an espalier, with her branches fixed to a stout frame (a shaded east-facing wall is ideal).

    Whatever the climatic zone, Southern magnolia does best in relatively fertile soil that’s not too sandy or heavy.  A good compost (such as Fafard Premium Natural & Organic Compost) can help bring marginal soils into line.

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    The highly fragrant blooms of sweetbay appear in spring and are almost primrose yellow. (Image by Jessie Keith)

    Native from Texas to North-Coastal Massachusetts, Magnolia virginiana makes a natural choice for gardens from USDA Zones 5 to 9.  Evergreen forms of this elegant small tree – known botanically as variety australis – are confined to the Southeast, and tend to either expire or defoliate in Zone 5 and 6 winters.  Exceptions do occur, however, including the cultivars ‘Henry Hicks’ and ‘Moonglow’, both of which are hardy and often evergreen (or semi-evergreen) into Zone 5b.

    In all its forms, sweetbay magnolia is one of the finest small trees for American gardens.  Typically single-trunked in warmer climes and multi-stemmed in chillier regions, it bears oval, rich green leaves with silvery undersides that shimmer in the breeze.  The cupped, creamy (almost primrose yellow) flowers debut in late spring and continue sporadically throughout summer, casting a piquant, questing fragrance reminiscent of roses or lemons.  Attractive clusters of red-fleshed fruits follow the blooms.  Often found in wetlands in nature, Magnolia virginiana is well suited for moister areas of the landscape (and loathes dry, sandy soil).

    Natural and Organic

    Before planting evergreen magnolias, fortify your soil with Fafard Natural & Organic Compost Blend.

    Also well worth growing is the hybrid between sweetbay magnolia and umbrella magnolia (Magnolia tripetala), which combines the fragrant, summer-long blooms of the former with the bold, primordial, deciduous foliage of the latter.  Its cultivar ‘Cairn Croft’ is sometimes available from specialty nurseries.  Crosses between sweetbay and Southern magnolia have been developed and introduced by hybridizers, but offer no notable advantages over the parents.  For year-round leafage and beauty, these two exceptional natives can’t be beat.

  4. 2017 Southeast Regional Fruit and Vegetable Conference

    Visit us at this year’s Southeast Regional Fruit and Vegetable Conference held in Savannah, Georgia from January 5-8, 2017. The event is the LARGEST educational conference and trade show for fruit and vegetable growers in the southeastern United States. Its focus is specialty crop agriculture. More than 80 hours of educational sessions will be offered and the massive supplier and grower Trade Show will be held in 85,000 square feet of space.

    Black Gold and Sun Gro will be at booth #632!

  5. Homemade Caramel Apple & Pear Fig Honey Butter Recipes

    apple butter on wood background. toning. selective focus

    Caramel apple butter is a delicious holiday treat!

    Tart, spicy, fragrant fruit butters are great winter treats that can be canned and shared as holiday gifts. Apples and winter pears are in season, so there are no better fruits for making dessert-quality spreads perfect for spreading on buttery toast, dipping with salty pretzels, or dolloping onto spice cookies. If you have your own apple and pear trees, even better! [Click here to learn how to grow your own winter pears!}

    These butters are simple to make but require some patience. The key to their deliciousness is perfect caramelization and thickness, so be sure they are perfectly cooked before canning! As pre-preparation, be sure to have sterile canning jars on hand. Well-cooked spreads such as these are perfect for those just learning to can at home (canning instructions are below). Place a pretty label on the jar, top it with a bow, and bring a few jars to your next holiday party!

    Caramel Apple Butter

    Tart apples are rounded by the milky sweetness of caramel. Sweet/tart sauce apples like ‘Gravenstein’, ‘Jonathan’, ‘Cortland’ and ‘McIntosh’ make excellent butter. A touch of salt is crucial for flavor. Can this yummy spread for holiday gift giving or personal enjoyment. It’s decadent stuff!

    Ingredients

    • 3 lbs. apples (about 9 medium apples) – peeled, cored and roughly chopped
    • ½ cup water
    • ¾ cups light brown sugar
    • ½ teaspoon ground cloves
    • ½ teaspoon allspice
    • 1 ½ teaspoons ground cinnamon
    • 1 teaspoon kosher salt
    • 15 caramels

    Directions

    1. Add the apples and ½ cup of water to a large, sturdy sauce pan. Cover and simmer until the apples are soft but intact (15–20 minutes).
    2. Allow the apples to cool, and then strain them in a colander to remove any excess liquid.
    3. Transfer the apples into a food processor and puree them until smooth.
    4. Place the apple puree back in the pot and set the stove to medium-low heat. Reduce the heat to low if it starts to bubble.
    5. Add the sugar, caramels, and salt, then simmer, stirring occasionally.
    6. After 3–4 hours the butter should be thick and caramel-colored.
    7. Use the dab test to check if the butter is ready. Dab a bit onto a plate; if no residual liquid oozes from the edge, and the butter remains mounded, it’s ready.
    8. Add the spices  and stir. Keep the butter on low heat until you’re ready to can it.

    This recipe makes around four 4-oz. jars of butter that can be canned or stored in airtight containers for freezing or refrigeration.

    Apple Butter Sm

    Caramel Apple Butter Ingredients

     

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    Start by peeling and roughly chopping the apples

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    Cook the apples are soft but intact (15–20 minutes).

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    Puree the softened apples and then return them to the pot.

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    Add the caramels, brown sugar, and salt, and cook the butter down on low heat for 2-3 hours.

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    Do the dab test. The butter on the right is fully caramelized and ready. The butter on the left is still watery and underdone.

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    Can and label your finished butter using the instructions below.

    Pear Fig Honey Butter

    This decadent fruit butter tastes great on morning toast or dolloped between crisp butter cookies.

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    Honey, Fig, Pear Butter ingredients

    Ingredients

    • 9 soft Bosc or Comice pears – peeled, cored and chopped
    • 1/2 cup raw, wildflower honey
    • 1 cup chopped dried figs
    • the juice of one lemon
    • Pinch of salt to taste

    Directions

    1. Puree pears and figs in a food processor until smooth.
    2. Place the puree in a sturdy, large pot and set the stove to medium-low heat. (Reduce to low if it starts to bubble).
    3. Add the honey and salt, and mix until blended.
    4. Cook uncovered, stirring occasionally, until the butter becomes reduced by half. This should take around 2-3 hours (sometimes more).
    5. The finished butter should be fully caramelized, thickened and ready to can.

    This recipe makes around four 4-oz. jars of butter. Enjoy!

    Canning Instructions

    Materials:

    Canning Pot with Jar Rack
    Four 4-oz or two 8-oz jars for canning
    Canning Jar Lifter
    Canning Lids and Screw Bands (new)
    Labels and Permanent Marker
    Ladle
    Wide-mouthed Jar Funnel

    Steps:

    1. Wash your hands and work space before starting.
    1. Sterilize jars by filling a large pot with water to a depth that will cover them. Submerge the jars, screw bands, and lids into the hot water. Bring the water to a rolling boil, and boil for 10 minutes. Remove the hot jars with clean tongs while gently pouring the hot water out before removal. Place the jars upside down on a clean towel. Only touch the jar exteriors (Keep the canning pot with hot lids simmering.)
    1. Using a clean ladle and wide-mouthed funnel, fill the jars with hot, prepared fruit butter. Fill until there is an inch of head space at the top of the jar. Wipe messy jar rims with a clean cloth.
    1. Remove the sterilized lids and screw bands from the hot water and place them on the jars–being sure not to touch the inner lids. Make sure the lids are firmly down and screw bands lightly tightened. Manufacturer’s instructions may vary so follow those on the box.
    1. Place the jars on the jar rack and lower them into the pot of hot canning water, if you have no rack lower the jars in with a canning jar lifter being sure to keep jars from touching. Cover the canning pot and keep at a low boil for 10 minutes.
    1. Remove the jars from the pot and place them on towels to cool. Fully tighten the screw bands. Once cool, dry the outsides thoroughly and apply labels. Include the butter type and date.
    1. After jars have set for 12 hours, check for success.  If the lids are tight, air free and cannot be pressed down, they’re fine. If they pop down, they are improperly sealed, but don’t throw them away. You can either put them in the refrigerator for immediate use or try to re-cap them using steps 4 through 6. As a general rule, canned food is best used in the first year. Store your butters in a cool dry place.